Human Resource Management

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Organizational Culture

Based on Human Resource Management by Alan Price - published by Cengage Learning



The purpose of this chapter is to:
- Introduce the concept of culture at international, national and organizational levels.
- Describe and evaluate theoretical approaches to culture, especially that of Hofstede.
- Evaluate the contribution of Deal and Kennedy to the debate on corporate culture.
- Discuss how cultures may be managed.


  • Culture and international HRM
  • Respecting cultural differences
  • Cultures and standards
  • Cultural variety
  • The perception of time
  • The perception of time
  • Roles
  • Related cultures
  • Psychology and culture
  • Culture and business behaviour
  • Cultural training
  • National and organizational cultures
  • Converging cultures?

    Corporate culture

  • The Deal and Kennedy model of corporate culture
  • Corporate culture and people management


    We commenced this chapter by recognizing that international HRM can be considered analytically and that differences between national cultures are important to that analysis. However, descriptions of cultural differences tend to be stereotypical and do not pay sufficient attention to the diversity found in regions such as Asia. We discussed the work of Hofstede (1994) on dimensions such as cultural complexity, power distance, individualism, assertiveness and uncertainty avoidance. We extended our discussion to cover corporate culture with an account of Deal and Kennedy's (1982) model and more recent debates on the subject.

    Riding The Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business by Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner, 2nd edition (1997) published by McGraw-Hill remains a good introduction to the subject of management in an international context. When Cultures Collide by Richard D. Lewis (2000), published by Nicholas Brealey is an enlightening account of national cultural differences. Hofstede's (1994) updated version of Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, published by HarperCollins, provides a stimulating account of his research and ideas. Deal and Kennedy's (1992) Corporate Cultures is one of the classic texts on culture within organizations.

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